The Russian media refers to the mass media outlets based in the Russian Federation. The media outlets number is huge- more than 83,000 media outlets are registered that broadcast information in 102 languages apart from the Russian language. The media outlets are divided into several parts: magazines – 37%, newspapers – 28%, online media – 11%, TV – 10%, radio – 7% and news agencies – 2%. Among all these print media accounts for two-thirds of the media.
Although The Constitution of Russia guarantees freedom of speech, still there is a tradition of censorship in Russia since 1790. The number of daily newspapers is 2635, and it plays a very important role in the Russian media system. The total newspapers ad receipts are US$ 127 million. In the past ten years, the circulation increased remarkably, the total circulation was estimated at 6.8 million copies in 2016 compared to about 8 million in 2006.
The newspaper market is divided according to geographic sectors: some are national, some are regional, and the rest are large administration centers and small settlements. Some of the main newspapers are Izvestia, Trud, Moskovskiye Novosti, Novaya Gazeta and many more. There are also many online newspapers like LifeNews, Grani.ru, Gazeta.ru etc. All the newspapers are divided into several categories like business, sports, entertainment etc.
Television is the most popular and source of great entertainment media for the Russian people. They spend at least about 353 minutes on average watching TV. For about 86% of the Russian population, TV is the main source of news. The control of channels is divided into the government and the state. The government controls two of the three main federal channels: Channel One and Russia-1, while state-controlled energy giant Gazprom owns NTV. There are 7,306 TV stations and 60,500,000 TV sets. Some of the main channels are the First Channel, Rossiya 1, Russia K, TNT etc.
FM Radios were introduced in Russia in the mid-1990s. The first radio stations were set up by the French and American companies, but later on, slowly Russia came up with their radio station and networks with Russian music formats and domestic ownership. The total number of radio stations is 953. There are both state-owned and private channels, but the state-owned ones are the role players with news and music content. Some of them are Radio Rossii, Mayak, Russkoje Radio, Dorozhnoe Radio, Avtoradio, Europa+, Retro FM, etc.
Internet access is easier and available now in Russia. They come in various forms, including dial-up, cable, DSL, FTTH, mobile, wireless and satellite. The number of individuals with Internet access is 3,100,000. The teenage ones mostly use all the social media of Russia. Social networks in Russia became the most popular Internet resource for Russian users. The most prominent search engine is Google and Russian search engine Yandex. Apart from these, WhatsApp has 10.6 million, Viber has 8.6 million, and Skype has 3.4 million users.